What is the fiduciary responsibility of software developers in Bitcoin?

What do you think of when you read "lawyer client privilege"  or "doctor patient relationship" or how about "software developer bitcoin investor relationship" or "fiduciary responsibility of a financial advisor".  Which one is out of place?  

Welcome to the new world of "software running the world" 😨 

Fiduciary Duty of Software Developers in Bitcoin: Exploring the Legal Landscape

The emergence of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies has brought about a new frontier in the realm of finance, challenging traditional notions of ownership and control. While Bitcoin's decentralized nature has been lauded for its potential to democratize finance, it has also raised questions about the legal responsibilities of those who contribute to its development and maintenance. In particular, the question of whether software developers owe a fiduciary duty to Bitcoin users has gained significant traction.

Understanding Fiduciary Duty

Fiduciary duty, a cornerstone of trust law, imposes a legal obligation on individuals to act in the best interests of another party. This duty arises from a relationship of trust and confidence, where one party has entrusted their interests to another. Fiduciaries are expected to exercise the utmost care and diligence in managing the entrusted interests, prioritizing the beneficiaries' well-being above their own.

The Bitcoin Context

In the context of Bitcoin, software developers play a crucial role in maintaining the network's integrity and functionality. They design, code, and implement software that governs the creation, distribution, and exchange of Bitcoin. Their decisions have a direct impact on the value and security of Bitcoin, affecting the financial interests of millions of users worldwide.

Arguments for Fiduciary Duty

Proponents of the fiduciary duty argument maintain that software developers wield significant power over Bitcoin users' assets. By controlling the code that underpins the network, developers have the ability to introduce vulnerabilities, alter consensus rules, or even manipulate the supply of Bitcoin. This power imbalance, they argue, creates a fiduciary relationship between developers and users, obligating developers to act in the best interests of the Bitcoin community.

Arguments Against Fiduciary Duty

Opponents of the fiduciary duty argument contend that software developers are not traditional fiduciaries, such as trustees or financial advisors. They argue that developers are more akin to independent contractors, providing services based on their expertise and not bound by the same stringent fiduciary obligations. Additionally, imposing fiduciary duty could stifle innovation and development within the Bitcoin ecosystem, as developers may become overly cautious and risk-averse.

Recent Legal Developments

The debate over fiduciary duty in Bitcoin has gained traction in recent legal cases. In 2022, the English Court of Appeal recognized the potential for fiduciary duties between software developers and cryptocurrency users, leaving open the possibility for future claims. This decision suggests that courts are increasingly willing to adapt established legal principles to the evolving landscape of digital assets.


The question of whether software developers owe a fiduciary duty to Bitcoin users remains a complex and evolving one. As the legal landscape continues to develop, the courts will grapple with balancing the need to protect users' interests with the desire to foster innovation and growth in the Bitcoin ecosystem. The outcome of these deliberations will have significant implications for the future of Bitcoin and the broader cryptocurrency industry.

In the case Tulip-v-Van-Der-Laan the judge clearly states that software developers have a fiduciary duty.

This is a significant statement by the Judge.  He writes that developers maintaining the bitcoin software owe a duty to bitcoin owners not to compromise the owner's security. and interests of all owners as a class  should be put ahead of the developer's self interest.

The judge writes that it is a fiduciary responsibility/duty.  He does not see what other duty it could be.

See paragraph 75 and the following paragraphs.

See Tulip-v-Van-Der-Laan case link